Bee precaution pesticide ratings

Guidance on how to reduce bee poisoning, based on reported pesticide effects on adults and brood of honey bees and other bee species. Ratings are for the pesticide active ingredient, the common name.*

Note: These are not the pollinator precautionary statements on the pesticide labels. Some of the listed pesticides are not registered, or approved, for use. Make sure the pesticide use is legal and appropriate before making any application. Always read the label and know and follow the applicable laws and regulations before making any pesticide application. Follow best management practices to protect bees from pesticides.

Frequently asked questions (FAQs) about this tool.

 

 
Common Name
(Trade Name)
Type Mode of action Rating Other effects on bees Toxic to honey bee brood Toxic to other bee species
Please select a common name or trade name from the list above.

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** Synergism of this premix is based on the reported synergism of one or more of the active ingredients. The "I" to "III" rating of this premix is based on the individual active ingredient(s) posing the greatest hazard to honey bees.
This rating applies only if the pesticide is applied in EPA-approved bait stations that prevent bee exposure. This product is toxic to bees.
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I Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering including weeds. Do not allow pesticide to contaminate water accessible to bees including puddles.
II Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering including weeds, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations. Do not allow pesticide to contaminate water accessible to bees including puddles.
III No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations.
Mode of action
FRAC Fungicide Resistance Action Committee mode-of-action codes for bactericides and fungicides.
HRAC Herbicide Resistance Action Committee mode-of-action codes for herbicides and plant growth regulators.
IRAC Insecticide Resistance Action Committee mode-of-action codes for acaricides, insecticides, nematicides, and molluscicides.
WSSA Weed Science Society of America mode-of-action codes are presented at the HRAC Herbicide Resistance Action Committee website above.
Mode-of-action code presentation style
· The separator (a bullet point) between the two mode-of-action codes for each herbicide active ingredient (common name), such as O·4, the HRAC·WSSA codes for 2,4-D.
/ The separator between common names (active ingredients), and between their mode-of-action codes, when two or more pesticides are combined in the same trade name product (e.g., a premix of the three herbicides 2,4-D/DICAMBA/MCPP).
; The separator between pesticide types, and between their mode-of-action codes, when an active ingredient (common name) is of multiple types as with sulfur, an Acaricide; Fungicide; Insecticide.
When the trade name product is in a premix of more than one active ingredient (common name) all of the same type (e.g., herbicide or insecticide) with the same mode of action, the codes are presented only once. For example, for the combination of the two dinitroaniline herbicides BENEFIN/TRIFLURALIN (Team 2G) their HRAC·WSSA codes are presented as "K1·3" instead of "K1·3/K1·3."
Mode-of-action codes are presented in the order of the common names to which they apply in the row (line) naming their type. For example, the codes for PYRIDABEN/SULFUR (Desperado) are "21A/UN" as an acaricide (IRAC codes), "—/M02" as a fungicide (FRAC codes), and "21A/UN" as an insecticide (IRAC codes).
Other effects
FRAC1
FRAC3
FRACM01
If mixed with thiophanate fungicides FRAC code 1 (e.g., thiophanate-methyl), or DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), or copper fungicides FRAC code M01 (e.g., Bordeaux mixture, copper hydroxide), may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC1
FRAC3
FRACM01
FRACM05
If mixed with thiophanate fungicides FRAC code 1 (e.g., thiophanate-methyl), or DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), or copper fungicides FRAC code M01 (e.g., Bordeaux mixture, copper hydroxide), or chlorothalonil fungicide FRAC code M05, may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC1
FRAC3
FRACM03
FRACM05
If mixed with thiophanate fungicides FRAC code 1 (e.g., thiophanate-methyl), or DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), or dithiocarbamate fungicides FRAC code M03 (e.g., mancozeb, thiram, ziram), or chlorothalonil fungicide FRAC code M05, may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC1
FRAC3
FRACM05
If mixed with thiophanate fungicides FRAC code 1 (e.g., thiophanate-methyl), or DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), or chlorothalonil fungicide FRAC code M05, may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC1
IRAC3A
IRAC4A
If mixed with thiophanate fungicides FRAC code 1 (e.g., thiophanate-methyl), or pyrethroid insecticides IRAC group 3A (e.g., cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate), or neonicotinoid insecticides IRAC group 4A (e.g., acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid), may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC1
IRAC3A
IRAC4A
IRAC4D
IRAC15
IRAC28
If mixed with thiophanate fungicides FRAC code 1 (e.g., thiophanate-methyl), or insecticides, including pyrethroids IRAC group 3A (e.g., cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate), or neonicotinoids IRAC group 4A (e.g., acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid), or butenolide IRAC group 4D (flupyradifurone), or chitin biosynthesis inhibitors IRAC group 15 (e.g., diflubenzuron, novaluron), or diamides IRAC group 28 (chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, flubendiamide), may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC2 If mixed with dicarboximide fungicides FRAC code 2 (e.g., iprodione, vinclozolin), may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC2
FRAC3
If mixed with dicarboximide fungicides FRAC code 2 (e.g., iprodione, vinclozolin), or DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC2
IRAC1B
IRAC4A
If mixed with dicarboximide fungicides FRAC code 2 (e.g., iprodione, vinclozolin), or organophosphate insecticides IRAC group 1B (e.g., acephate, chlorpyrifos, malathion), or neonicotinoid insecticides IRAC group 4A (e.g., acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid), may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC2
IRAC1B
IRAC4A
If mixed with dicarboximide fungicides FRAC code 2 (e.g., iprodione, vinclozolin), or organophosphate insecticides IRAC group 1B (e.g., acephate, chlorpyrifos, malathion), or neonicotinoid insecticides IRAC group 4A (e.g., acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid), may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC2
IRAC3A
IRAC4A
IRAC4D
IRAC15
If mixed with dicarboximide fungicides FRAC code 2 (e.g., iprodione, vinclozolin), or insecticides, including pyrethroids IRAC group 3A (e.g., cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate), or neonicotinoids IRAC group 4A (e.g., acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid), or butenolide IRAC group 4D (flupyradifurone), or chitin biosynthesis inhibitors IRAC group 15 (e.g., diflubenzuron, novaluron), may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC2
IRAC3A
IRAC4A
IRAC4D
IRAC15
IRAC28
If mixed with dicarboximide fungicides FRAC code 2 (e.g., iprodione, vinclozolin), or pyrethroid insecticides IRAC group 3A (e.g., cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate), or neonicotinoid insecticides IRAC group 4A (e.g., acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid), or butenolide insecticide IRAC group 4D (flupyradifurone), or chitin biosynthesis inhibitors IRAC group 15 (e.g., diflubenzuron, novaluron), or diamide insecticides IRAC group 28 (e.g., chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, flubendiamide) may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC3 If mixed with DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC3
FRAC7
FRAC11
If mixed with DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), or SDHI and QoI fungicides FRAC codes 7 and 11 (boscalid and pyraclostrobin, Pristine), may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC3
FRAC11
FRACM05
If mixed with DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), or QoI fungicides FRAC code 11 (e.g., azoxystrobin, famoxadone, pyraclostrobin), or chlorothalonil fungicide FRAC code M05, may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC3
FRAC7
FRAC11
FRACM05
If mixed with DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), or SDHI and QoI fungicides FRAC codes 7 and 11 (boscalid and pyraclostrobin, Pristine), or chlorothalonil fungicide FRAC code M05, may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC3
FRAC9
If mixed with DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), or anilinopyrimidine fungicides FRAC code 9 (e.g., cyprodinil, pyrimethanil), may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC3
FRACM03
FRACM05
If mixed with DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), or dithiocarbamate fungicides FRAC code M03 (e.g., mancozeb, thiram, ziram), or chlorothalonil fungicide FRAC code M05, may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC3
FRACM05
If mixed with DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), or chlorothalonil fungicide FRAC code M05, may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC3
FRACM05
IRAC4A
If mixed with DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), or chlorothalonil fungicide FRAC code M05, or neonicotinoid insecticides IRAC group 4A (e.g., acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid), may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC3
IRAC3A
IRAC4A
If mixed with DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), or pyrethroid insecticides IRAC group 3A (e.g., cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate), or neonicotinoid insecticides IRAC group 4A (e.g., acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid), may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC3
IRAC3A
IRAC4A
IRAC4D
IRAC15
If mixed with DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), or insecticides, including pyrethroids IRAC group 3A (e.g., cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate), or neonicotinoids IRAC group 4A (e.g., acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid), or butenolide IRAC group 4D (flupyradifurone), or chitin biosynthesis inhibitors IRAC group 15 (e.g., diflubenzuron, novaluron), may increase toxicity to bees.
FRACM05
IRAC3A
IRAC4A
If mixed with chlorothalonil fungicide FRAC code M05, or pyrethroid insecticides IRAC group 3A (e.g., cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate), or neonicotinoid insecticides IRAC group 4A (e.g., acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid), may increase toxicity to bees.
Indirect Most herbicides are not toxic to bees, according to the available information. Herbicides primarily harm bees indirectly, by reducing the availability of flowering plants that produce nectar, pollen, and bee nesting material.
Insecticide If mixed with insecticides, increases hazard to bees.
IRAC18 If mixed with ecdysone receptor agonists IRAC group 18 (e.g., methoxyfenozide, tebufenozide), may increase toxicity to bees.
IRAC28 If mixed with diamide insecticides IRAC group 28 (e.g., chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, flubendiamide), may increase toxicity to bees.
IRAC3A If mixed with pyrethroid insecticides, IRAC group 3A (e.g., cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate), may increase toxicity to bees.
IRAC3A
IRAC21A
If mixed with pyrethroid insecticides, IRAC group 3A (e.g., cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate), or mitochondrial complex I electron transport inhibitors IRAC group 21A (e.g., fenpyroximate), may increase toxicity to bees.
IRAC3A
IRAC4A
IRAC4D
IRAC15
If mixed with insecticides, including pyrethroids IRAC group 3A (e.g., cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate), or neonicotinoids IRAC group 4A (e.g., acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid), or butenolide IRAC group 4D (flupyradifurone), or chitin biosynthesis inhibitors IRAC group 15 (e.g., diflubenzuron, novaluron), may increase toxicity to bees.
IRAC3A
IRAC4A
IRAC4D
IRAC15
IRAC28
If mixed with insecticides, including pyrethroids IRAC group 3A (e.g., cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate), or neonicotinoids IRAC group 4A (e.g., acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid), or butenolide IRAC group 4D (flupyradifurone), or chitin biosynthesis inhibitors IRAC group 15 (e.g., diflubenzuron, novaluron), or diamides IRAC group 28 (chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, flubendiamide), may increase toxicity to bees.
IRAC4A If mixed with neonicotinoid insecticides IRAC group 4A (e.g., acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid), may increase toxicity to bees.
IRAC5 If mixed with spinosyns IRAC group 5 (spinetoram, spinosad), may increase toxicity to bees.
*Sources
  1. How to Reduce Bee Poisoning from Pesticides - 2013. Pacific Northwest Extension publication PNW591.
  2. US EPA criteria for the bee precautionary statement on pesticide labels, the active ingredients' LD50 (≤ 2 μg/bee, > 2 to < 11 μg/bee, or ≥ 11 μg/bee) and residual toxicity to honey bee adults.
  3. The authors' consideration of reported effects of pesticide active ingredients, and when available formulated products (trade names), on the adults and brood of various bee species.
Authors
Steve H. Dreistadt, UC IPM Program, Davis
Elina L. Niño, Entomology and Nematology, UC Davis
Lucia G. Varela, UC IPM Program and UCCE, Sonoma Co.
Louisa Hooven, Oregon State University
Ramesh Sagili, Oregon State University
Benjamin Phillips, Michigan State University
Amber C. Vinchesi, UCCE, Colusa Co.
Timothy Lawrence, Washington State University
Acknowledgments
Richard S. Cowles, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
Brad Hanson, Plant Sciences, UC Davis
Erik Johansen, Washington State Department of Agriculture
Reed M. Johnson, Ohio State University
Andony Melathopoulos, Oregon State University
Eric C. Mussen, Entomology and Nematology, UC Davis
Cheryl A. Wilen, UC IPM Program, UCCE, San Diego Co.

Tunyalee Martin and Petr Kosina, coordinators; Chinh Lam production; UC IPM. Partially funded by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture - Crop Protection and Pest Management Competitive Grants Program.