Agriculture: Strawberry Pest Management Guidelines

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Strawberry to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

Common name
(Example trade name)
Mode of action1 Selectivity2
(affected groups)
Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
abamectin (Agri-Mek) 6 moderate (leafminers, mites) M L M/H I long to predatory mites and affected insects
acequinocyl (Kanemite) 20B narrow (mites) 7 III
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A moderate (sucking insects) 8 7 II moderate
azadirachtin (AzaGuard, Neemix) un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai (Agree, Xentari) 11A narrow (caterpillars) L/M L/M L II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki (Deliver, Dipel) 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III short
Beauveria bassiana (BotaniGard) broad (insects, mites) II
bifenazate (Acramite) 20D narrow (spider mites) L L L II short
bifenthrin (Brigade) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I long
Burkholderia rinojensis (Venerate) broad (insects, mites)
carbaryl, bait (Sevin Bait) 1A narrow (armyworms, cutworms, grasshoppers) L L L I short
chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M III short
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I moderate
Chromobacterium subtsugae (Grandevo) broad (insects, mites)
diazinon 1B broad (insects, mites) L H H I moderate to long
etoxazole (Zeal) 10B narrow (mites) H7 L II short
fenbutatin oxide (Vendex) 12B narrow (pest mites) L L L III short
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I
fenpyroximate (FujiMite 5SC) 21A narrow (mites, some insects H L L III short
hexythiazox (Savey) 10A narrow (mites) M L L II short to moderate
imidacloprid (Admire) 4A narrow (beet armyworm, cutworms, sucking insects) L I
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L III short
Isaria fumosorosea (Pfr-97) broad (insects, mites) short
malathion 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I moderate
Metarhizium brunneum (Met52) broad (insects, mites)
methomyl (Lannate) 1A broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
naled (Dibrom) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I
neem oil (Trilogy) broad (soft-bodied insects) mites) L L L II shorts
novaluron (Rimon) 15 narrow (insects) L L/M short to moderate
paraffinic oil (JMS Stylet Oil) broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L II short
petroleum oil broad (exposed insects, mites) L9 L L II short
pyrethrins (PyGanic) 3A broad (insects) M M I short
pyrethrin/piperonyl butoxide (Pyrenone) 3A/— broad (insects) I short to moderate
pyriproxyfen (Esteem) 7C narrow (whiteflies) L H10 L II long
rosemary oil (Hexacide) broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L III
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 narrow (caterpillars, fruit flies, leafminers, thrips, whiteflies) M M11 L/M II moderate12
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, fruit flies, leafminers, thrips, whiteflies) M M11 L/M II short to moderate11
spiromesifen (Oberon SC) 23 narrow (mites, whiteflies) II
thiamethoxam (Actara) 4A narrow (sucking insects) 8 M I moderate
H = high        M = moderate         L = low         — = no information 
1 Rotate insecticides with a different mode-of-action group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a group number of 1B; insecticides with a 1B group number should be alternated with insecticides that have a group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers for insecticides and miticides (un=unknown or uncertain mode of action) are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Toxicities are generally to Phytoseiulus persimilis.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific insecticide depends on factors including the application rate, environmental conditions, and life stage and species of parasite or predator.
5 Ratings are as follows: I-Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II-Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the label and regulations; III-No bee precaution, except when required by the label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to two weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 Acute toxicity low but reproductive capacity is reduced.
8 May cause an increase in spider mites.
9 Use lowest rates for best management of predatory mite to spider mite ratio.
10 Kills lady beetles.
11 Toxic to some natural enemies (lacewing and syrphid fly larvae, predatory beetles and thrips) when sprayed and up to 5 to 7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
12 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.

Acknowledgments: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, UC ANR Publication 3386.

Text Updated: 07/18