Agriculture: Small Grains Pest Management Guidelines

Developmental Growth Stages

An illustration with the first several stages of the Feekes growth stages in small grains. It is accompanied by a table that labels each stage of the illustration. The first stage is a grain seed germinating underground, and to the right of this image is the emergence of the seedling above ground, with one leaf. In the table, the growth stage is called “emergence,” or Feekes growth stage 1. The second stage shows a larger seedling with a small second leaf. In the table, this stage is called “one-leaf,” or Feekes growth stage 1.1. The third stage shows a larger young plant, with two leaves on either side of the seedling stem. In the table, this stage is called “two-leaf,” or Feekes growth stage 1.2. The fourth stage in the illustration is yet a taller young plant, with three leaves: two on either side of the lower stem, and one growing at the top of the stem. In the table, this is called “three-leaf,” or Feekes growth stage 1.3. The next stage shows a second stem growing up from the ground in addition to the first stem. In the table, this stage is labeled as “tillering begins,” or Feekes growth stage 2. In the final stage of the illustration, the plant is much larger and has three stems that have emerged from the ground, with several leaves on each stem. In the table, this stage is called “well-tillered,” or Feekes growth stage 4.

An illustration with the continuing and later stages of the Feekes growth cycle for small grains. It is also accompanied by a table indicating the names of each stage. In the first stage of the illustration, a more mature grain plant is depicted with several leaves. A node is present on a stem in the center of the plant, and is labeled with the words “first node detectable.” In the table, this stage is labeled as “jointing begins” or Feekes growth stage 6. This stage also includes the stage “last leaf just visible,” or Feekes growth stage 8. The last leaf being just starting to become visible at the top of the plant is not shown in the illustration. In the second stage of the illustration, only the top of the grain plant is displayed. The flag leaf, or leaf that will serve to feed the head and fill the grain, is labeled “flag leaf ligule visible” on the illustration. In the table, this stage is noted as “early boot” or Feekes growth stage 9. In the third stage of this illustration, the grain head is beginning to form beneath the flag leaf. Spikelets are forming at the top of the head, and are labeled “spikelets above the flag leaf ligule.” In the table, this stage is labeled as “heading begins,” or Feekes growth stage 10.1. In the last stage of this illustration, the grain head is fully formed and the spikelets are at their full length. The stem has elongated beneath the grain head to form the peduncle (the uppermost internode), and is labeled “peduncle visible.” In the table, this stage is labeled as “heading complete,” or Feekes growth stage 10.5.

From: Strand, L. L. et al. 1990. Integrated Pest Management for Small Grains. Oakland: Univ. Calif. Agric. Nat. Res. Publ. 3333

Text Updated: 02/07