Description of the Pest
Several bird species may cause serious problems in pistachio production in California.
The crow is chunky, black, 17 to 21 inches long with a thick, black bill and feet. They are easy to recognize by their loud caw caw caw sound. Crows are gregarious and often feed in large numbers, moving from orchard to orchard.
California Fish and Wildlife regulations allow crows to be taken only by landowners or tenants, or by persons authorized in writing by such landowners or tenants, when crows are committing or about to commit depredations (damage to crops).
Starlings are dark colored birds with light speckling on the feathers. They are about 7.5 to 8.5 inches long with a short tail. They have a long, slender yellow bill in summer and a dark one during the winter. Starlings have a wide habitat range but prefer areas with trees. If their excrement or droppings contact the fruit, it will cause unsightly blemishes and may transmit diseases.
Starlings are an invasive, exotic species and can be lethally removed at any time.
House finches are highly adapted to human environments. House finches are typically 5 to 6 inches long and feed in small flocks. Male finches have a rosy-red or orange head, rump, and breast with brownish wings and back, and a brown streak on their sides. Females have the brown body and wings, but lack the red or orange coloration.
House finches are migratory, nongame birds, and can only be lethally removed with a depredation permit from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or under supervision of the local county agricultural commissioner.
Yellow-billed magpies are noisy birds, 16 to 20 inches long. Adults have bold, distinct markings; they are mostly black with white stripes and a white belly. Their black wings and tails have a metallic blue green iridescent hue. The bill and the skin around the eyes are yellow. They feed in small flocks of a few birds to several dozen. They may be abundant locally.
A federal permit is not required to control magpies when they are found committing or about to commit depredations (damage to crops). However, you should always consult with state and local authorities before taking magpies as legal mandates can change.
Scrub-jays are aggressive birds, 10 to 12 inches long, and are distinguished by their crestless head, olive-gray back, and white throat with a blue outline. Their head, tail, and wings are blue. Scrub-jays are usually solitary birds but occasionally feed in pairs. Where jay habitat is adjacent to an orchard, however, several dozen may invade the trees daily, forming almost continuous lines moving to and from trees.
Scrub-jays are classed as a migratory nongame bird and may only be removed under permit from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
White-crowned and golden-crowned sparrows cause damage in California. Both are about 6 to 7 inches long. White-crowned sparrows have a distinct pink or yellowish bill, erect posture, gray throat and breast, and a visible crown streaked with black and white. Their call is a clear whistle. Golden-crowned sparrows are similar, except they have no white head stripes. A golden-yellow central crown stripe is prominent with black borders. Their call is three to five clear whistles. Overall, golden-crowned sparrows are less numerous and cause fewer problems than white-crowned sparrows.
Crowned sparrows are migratory, nongame birds, and can only be lethally removed with a depredation permit from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or under supervision of the local county agricultural commissioner.
Tree fruit (except citrus) and nut crops
Several bird species including scrub-jays, magpies, sparrows, house finches, crows, and starlings may cause substantial damage by feeding on ripening fruit or developing nuts. In general, scrub-jays and magpies feed in smaller numbers. However, they can congregate in larger flocks when orchards are found adjacent to perennial, thick vegetation. Crows and starlings typically fly in larger flocks. Bird species that congregate in large flocks are more difficult to control.
Sparrows and house finches can also damage fruit buds during the dormant season. Bird damage usually is most severe in areas that are adjacent to wild or brushy areas or power line poles where birds find refuge, breeding sites, and other sources of food. This damage will often go undetected until the trees are in full bloom unless the trees are observed closely during bud break or the birds are caught in the act. This leads to loss of fruit production and can be the most significant form of bird damage for some growers.
Natural predators such as raptors and bobcats will feed on some of the smaller bird species, although these numbers mean little for controlling such bird pests.
Always consider habitat modification as a first step for controlling bird pests.
- Look for and eliminate brush or pruning piles, stacks of irrigation pipes, piles of boxes, etc., where birds may rest and nest.
- Consider removing roosting trees along perimeters to reduce bird invasion into fields.
However, there are few situations when habitat modification can be used to control high bird numbers. As such, alternative control methods will likely be needed.
Monitoring and Treatment Decisions
Count birds weekly to help you determine when damage will occur so you can take action early. This is particularly important to reduce damage to fruiting buds and newly sprouted row crops.
- Watch for bird movement into or within the field.
- Keep track of species, numbers, and location if you have had substantial damage in the past.
- As fruit begins to ripen or as the nuts develop, look for fruit or nuts that are damaged or that have been knocked from the tree or vine.
These records will help you plan control strategies in advance and assess the effectiveness of previous control actions.
Frightening devices can deter some species (e.g., crowned sparrows, crows, magpies, starlings), but are less effective for others (e.g., house finches, scrub-jays).
The most effective way to frighten birds from a field is to use a combination of noisemakers and visual repellents such as mylar streamers and "scare-eye" balloons. For example, scare-eye balloons may be attached to trees or posts that are next to electronic distress call devices. This combination may increase effectiveness over using either approach by itself. For maximum effectiveness, rotate from one type of frightening device to another and do not use one combination of devices for more than a week; otherwise, birds will become used to it.
Common noisemakers include roving patrols of bird bombs and shell crackers. Stationary devices such as gas cannons and electronic distress calls also provide relief. These stationary devices are most effective when you have at least 1 device per 5 acres and when they are elevated above the canopy.
Regardless of the approach used, pay attention to bird responses when using frightening devices. When birds no longer respond negatively to a specific approach, you must switch to a different frightening tactic to continue to scare birds out of the field. At best, an appropriate rotation of frightening devices will control bird pests for a few weeks. Therefore, only use these scare-tactics when needed to prevent birds from habituating to these auditory and visual repellents. Additionally, once birds become accustomed to feeding in a field, frightening tactics become much less effective. Therefore, have frightening devices ready to implement before damage occurs so that birds can be deterred right at the onset of damage.
Birds that invade orchards in small numbers, such as scrub-jays and magpies, can often be controlled by shooting. Check with California Department of Fish and Wildlife, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and county agricultural commissioner officials before shooting any birds as depredation permits are often needed.
Where permissible, occasionally shooting at a few birds will increase the effectiveness of your noisemaking techniques, especially if noise makers go off at the same times as the actual shots, because birds will begin associating loud noises with the real hazards of firearms.
Trapping can be an effective way to control house finches, crowned sparrows, and starlings, especially if conducted over a relatively large area such as several orchards or vineyards. The most effective trap for these species is the modified Australian crow trap.
Successful trapping must take into account the behavior patterns of the birds being controlled. These traps use live birds as decoys to attract additional birds. Therefore, place traps in suitable locations with adequate food, water, shade, and roost locations to keep the trapped birds alive.
Trapping is best carried out by someone experienced with the technique. For house finches and crowned sparrows, trapping must be conducted under supervision of the county agricultural commissioner.
Trapped birds are usually euthanized through the use of a CO2 chamber. Leave some birds alive to serve as future decoys.