Agriculture: Pistachio Pest Management Guidelines

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Pistachios to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

Common name (example trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity2
(affected groups)
Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact
to natural enemies6
acephate (97Up) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H M/H I moderate
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 7 8 M/H II moderate
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki (Dipel) 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III none
bifenthrin (Brigade) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I long
buprofezin (Centaur) 16 narrow (sucking insects, beetles) L H 9 L II long
carbaryl (Sevin 4F) 1A broad (insects, mites) M/H H H I long
carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus) 1A broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
chlorantraniliprole (Altacor) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M III short
cyfluthrin (Baythroid) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
emamectin benzoate (Proclaim) 6 narrow (caterpillars) I
etoxazole (Zeal Miticide 1) 10B narrow (mites) M L L II short
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 3A narrow (sucking insects) I short
fenpyroximate (Fujimite) 21A narrow (mites) H L L III short
imidacloprid (Admire Pro) 4A narrow (sucking insects) M M H I short to moderate
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior II with Zeon) 3A broad (beetles, caterpillars) H H H I moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
permethrin (Ambush, Pounce) 3A broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
phosmet (Imidan) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
pyriproxyfen (Seize) 7C narrow (sucking insects) L H9 L II short
spinetoram (Delegate) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, scales, leafminers) L/M M10 M/H II moderate11
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, scales, leafminers) M M10 M II short
spirodiclofen (Envidor 2SC) 23 narrow (mites) M L L II short
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (mealybugs, aphids) L L L II short
sulfur un narrow (mites and citrus thrips) L/H M/L H III short
H = high            M = moderate             L = low             — = no information              un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III—No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
8 Does not kill adults but sterilizes females.
9 Kills lady beetles.
10 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after.
11 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M.L. and S.H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

Text Updated: 10/14