Agriculture: Peppermint Pest Management Guidelines

Relative Toxicities Of Insecticides And Miticides Used In Peppermint To Natural Enemies And Honey Bees

Common name
(Example trade name and formulation)
Mode of action1 Selectivity2
(affected groups)
Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
Abamectin (Agri-Mek EC) 6 moderate (mites, leafminers) H L M/H I long to predatory mites and affected insects
Bifenazate (Acramite) un narrow (mites) L L L II short
Chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) 28 narrow L L L/M III short
Ethoprop (Mocap 15G) 1B narrow (soil insects) L L L II
Etoxazole (Zeal) 10B narrow (mites) 7 II short
Fenpyroximate (Fujimate) 21A narrow (mites and some insects) L L III short
Hexythiazox (Onager EC) 10A narrow (mites) M L L II short to moderate
Neem oil (Trilogy) un broad (soft-bodied insects) L L L II short
Propargite (Omite) 12C narrow (pest mites) M8 L L III short
H = high    M = moderate     L = low     — = no information     un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
1 Rotate insecticides with a different mode-of-action group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a group number of 1B; insecticides with a 1B group number should be alternated with insecticides that have a group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers for insecticides and miticides (un=unknown or uncertain mode of action) are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Toxicities are generally to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific insecticide depends on factors including the application rate, environmental conditions, and life stage and species of parasite or predator.
5 Ratings are as follows: I—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III—No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 Acute toxicity low, but reproductive capacity impacted.
8 Use lowest rates for best management of western predatory mite/spider mite ratio (propargite).

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guidelines database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

Text Updated: 08/12