|H = high M = moderate L = low — = no information un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
||Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers ("un" = unknown or uncertain mode of action) are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
||Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
||Generally, toxicities are to the native strain of the western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
||Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
||Ratings are as follows: I—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III—No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
||Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
||May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
||Kills lady beetles.
||If rate is 0.02 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
||Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
||Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.
Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and
experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of
crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from
Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest
Control, ANR Publication 3386.