Agriculture: Nectarine Pest Management Guidelines

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Nectarines to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

Common name (Example trade name) Mode of Action1 Selectivity (affected groups)2 Predatory Mites3 General Predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
abamectin (Agri-Mek) 6 moderate (mites) M L M/H I
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 7 II moderate
azadirachtin (Neemix) un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III none
beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid (Leverage) 3A + 4A I
bifenazate (Acramite) un narrow (spider mites) L L L II short
buprofezin (Centaur) 16 narrow (scales) L H8 L II long
carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus) 1A broad (insects, mites) M H M I long
chlorantraniliprole (Altacor) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M III short
clofentezine (Apollo) 10A narrow (mites) L L L III short
diazinon&–foliar 1B broad (insects, mites) L H H I moderate to long
diflubenzuron (Dimilin) 15 L H L II
esfenvalerate (Asana) 3A broad (insect, mites) H M H I moderate
fenbutatin oxide (Vendex) 12B narrow (pest mites) L L L III short
hexythiazox (Onager, Savey) 10A narrow (mites) L L L II short
imidacloprid (Admire) 4A narrow (sucking insects) M M H I short to moderate
indoxacarb (Avaunt) 22A narrow (caterpillars, plant bugs) L L L I moderate
methomyl (Lannate) 1A broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II none
neem oil (Trilogy) un broad (soft-bodied insects) L L L II short
permethrin (Pounce) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I long
petroleum oil un broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L II short
phosmet (Imidan) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
pyridaben (Nexter) 21A broad (insects, mites) H M I short
pyriproxyfen (Seize) 7C narrow (scale, beetles) L H8 L II long
spinetoram (Delegate) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, scales) M M10 L/M II moderate11
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, scales) M M10 L/M II short to moderate
spirodiclofen (Envidor) 23 narrow (mites) L II
sulfur un narrow (mites) L/H L H III short
H = high     M = moderate    L = low    — = no information     un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers ("un" = unknown or uncertain mode of action) are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to the native strain of the western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III—No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
8 Kills lady beetles.
9 If rate is 0.02 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
10 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
11 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

Text Updated: 09/15