Agriculture: Kiwifruit Pest Management Guidelines

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Kiwifruit to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

Common name (Example trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity2
(affected groups)
Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III short
cryolite (Kryocide) 8C narrow (foliage chewing insects) L L L III short
esfenvalerate (Asana XL) 3A broad (insects, mites) H M H I moderate
petroleum oil broad (exposed insects, mites) L7 L L II short
pyriproxyfen (Seize) 7C narrow (scale, beetles) L H8 L II long
 
H = high       M = moderate    L = low     — = no information
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicites are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the speciesof predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I–Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II–Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the label and regulations; III–No bee precaution, except when required by the label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 Rating depends on rate used.
8 Kills lady beetles.

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

Text Updated: 06/16