Agriculture: Kiwifruit Pest Management Guidelines

Nematodes

  • Root-knot nematode: Meloidogyne spp.
  • Description of the Pest

    Nematodes are microscopic, true roundworms. Root galling is associated with root knot nematodes only.

    Damage

    Root knot nematodes may be damaging to the root system if relatively high soil populations are present. Vines become slightly weaker, especially in sandy areas, and fruit size on infected vines is reduced.

    Management

    Cultural Control

    Irrigate with greater frequency to avoid plant stress. Remove broadleaf weeds and do not plant cover crops susceptible to root knot nematode where root knot nematode is present.

    Treatment Decisions

    Nematodes are best controlled before planting because there are no kiwifruit rootstocks that are resistant to root knot nematode. Apply broadcast treatments in October or November the year before planting. The only alternative to fumigation is to not plant kiwifruit after kiwifruit and where root knot nematodes are present in the soil.

    Common name Amount per acre REI‡ PHI‡
    (Example trade name) (hours) (days)
    Not all registered pesticides are listed. The following are ranked with the pesticides having the greatest IPM value listed first—the most effective and least likely to cause resistance are at the top of the table. When choosing a pesticide, consider information relating to the pesticide‚Äôs properties and application timing, honey bees, and environmental impact. Always read the label of the product being used.
     
    PREPLANT
    A. 1,3–DICHLOROPROPENE*
    (Telone II) See comments See label NA
    COMMENTS: The application rate for Telone II cannot exceed 35 gal/acre. In dry soils with slight surface moisture, the overall value of a Telone II application is equivalent to that of methyl bromide. Fumigants such as 1,3-dichloropropene are a source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) but are minimally reactive with other air contaminants that form ozone. Become familiar with procedures that minimize off-gassing of fumigants.
     
    B. METAM SODIUM*
    (Vapam HL) 75 gal See label NA
    COMMENTS: Metam sodium* (Vapam HL), applied at a rate of 75 gal/acre delivered uniformly in 6 inches water/acre, can be as effective as Telone II or methyl bromide if: there are no old root systems present containing viable root knot nematode; the orifices of the irrigation delivery system are large enough to avoid misting and thereby volatilization of the product; and the soil and irrigation system can infiltrate 6 acre inches water in 8 hours or less. For this latter requirement, sandy soils without a hardpan are usually suitable, whereas fine sandy loam soils may not be. Fumigants such as metam sodium are a source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) but are minimally reactive with other air contaminants that form ozone. Become familiar with procedures that minimize off-gassing of fumigants.
    Restricted entry interval (REI) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (PHI) is the number of days from treatment to harvest. In some cases the REI exceeds the PHI. The longer of two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest.
    * Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use.
    NA Not applicable.
    Text Updated: 04/13
    Treatment Table Updated: 06/16