Agriculture: Kiwifruit Pest Management Guidelines

General Properties of Fungicides Used in Kiwifruit

Common name
(Example trade name)
Chemical class Activity Mode of action
(FRAC group number)1
Resistance potential
cyprodinil (Vangard) anilinopyrimidine mostly contact, slightly systemic (on most crops) single-site (9) high3
fludioxonil (Scholar) 2 phenylpyrrole contact single-site (oligo-site) (12) medium
1   Group numbers are assigned by the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) according to different modes of action. Fungicides with different group numbers are suitable to alternate in a resistance management program. In California, make no more than one application of a fungicide with a mode-of-action group number associated with high resistance risk before rotating to a fungicide with a different mode-of-action group number; for other fungicides, make no more than two consecutive applications before rotating to fungicide with a different mode-of-action group number.
2   Scholar is for postharvest use only.
3   Resistance has been found in California for certain fungicides with a single-site mode of action. To reduce the risk of resistance development, take the mode of action into account when choosing a fungicide. At the beginning of a treatment program, use a fungicide with a multi-site mode of action; for subsequent applications rotate or mix fungicides with different mode of action FRAC numbers. Use labeled rates (preferably the upper range) of the single-site fungicides, and limit the total number of applications per season.

Acknowledgment: Adaskaveg et al., 2022. Fungicides, Bactericides, Biocontrols, and Natural Products for Deciduous Tree Fruit and Nut, Citrus, Strawberry, and Vine Crops in California. (PDF)

Text Updated: 04/13