Agriculture: Grape Pest Management Guidelines

General Properties of Fungicides Used in Grapes

Common name (example trade name) Chemical class Activity Mode of action (FRAC Group No.1) Resistance potential Comments
azoxystrobin (Abound) QoI5 contact, systemic2 single-site (11) high
Bacillus pumilis (Sonata) microbial contact various (44) low
Bacillus subtilis (Serenade) microbial contact various (44) low
captan phthalamide contact multi-site (M4) low highly toxic to honey bee larvae
copper inorganic contact multi-site (M1) low
copper hydroxide inorganic contact multi-site (M1) low
copper sulfate inorganic contact multi-site (M1) low
cyflufenamid (Torino) phenylacetamide contact unknown (U6) high
cyprodinil (Vangard) anilinopyrimidine mostly contact, slightly systemic single-site (9) high
cyprodinil / fludioxonil (Switch) anilinopyrimidine and phenylpyrrole contact, slightly systemic single-site/ single-site (9 / 12) low to medium
difenoconazole / azoxystrobin (Quadris Top) DMI3-triazole and QoI5 systemic (local) single-site/ single-site (3 / 11) medium to high
difenoconazole / cyprodinil (Inspire Super) DMI3 and anilinopyrimidine contact, systemic single-site/ single-site (3 / 9) medium
fenhexamid (Elevate) hydroxyanilide contact single-site (17) high
fluopyram / tebuconazole (Luna Experience) SDHI6 pyridinyl-ethyl-benzamide and DMI3 contact, systemic single-site/ single-site (7 / 3) medium
fungicidal soap (M-Pede) inorganic salt contact low
iprodione (Rovral) dicarboximide systemic (local) single-site (2) medium
kresoxim-methyl (Sovran) Qol5 contact, systemic2 single-site (11) high
mancozeb (Dithane) dithiocarbamate contact multi-site (M3) low
mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) phenylamide contact, systemic single-site (4) high
metrafenone (Vivando) benzophenone contact unknown (U8) high
myclobutanil (Rally) DMI3-triazole systemic (local)2 single-site (3) high
oil (JMS stylet oil) mineral oil contact various (NC) low
potassium bicarbonate (Armicarb, Kaligreen, Milstop) inorganic salt contact various (NC) low
pyraclostrobin / boscalid (Pristine) Qol5 and SDHI6 contact, systemic2 single-site/ single-site (11 / 7) high
pyrimethanil (Scala) anilinopyrimidine mostly contact, slightly systemic single-site (9) high
quinoxyfen (Quintec) aryloxyquinoline contact single-site (13) medium
sulfur inorganic contact multi-site (M2) low highly toxic to native strains of western predatory mite (Galendromus occidentalis) and parasites.
tebuconazole (Elite) DMI3-triazole systemic (local)2 single-site (3) high
tetraconazole (Mettle) DMI3-triazole systemic (local) single-site (3) high
thiophanate-methyl (Topsin) MBC7 systemic (local) single-site (1) very high
trifloxystrobin (Flint) Qol5 contact, systemic2 single site (11) high
triflumizole (Procure) DMI3-imidazole systemic (local)2 single-site (3) high
ziram dithiocarbamate contact multi-site (M3) low
1 Group numbers are assigned by the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) according to different modes of actions. Fungicides with a different group number are suitable to alternate in a resistance management program. In California, make no more than one application of fungicides with mode-of-action group numbers 1, 4, 9, 11, or 17 before rotating to a fungicide with a different mode-of-action group number; for fungicides with other Group numbers, make no more than two consecutive applications before rotating to fungicide with a different mode-of-action group number.
2 Generally considered to have systemic action based on performance data but has not been proven experimentally.
3 DMI = demethylation (sterol) inhibitor
4 SAR = systemic aquired resistance induced in host
5 Qol = quinone outside inhibitor (strobilurin)
6 SDHI = succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor
7 MBC = methyl benzimidazole carbamate
= unknown
NC = not classified

Acknowledgment: Adaskaveg et al., 2017. Efficacy and Timing of Fungicides, Bactericides, and Biologicals for Deciduous Tree Fruit, Nut, Strawberry, and Vine Crops (PDF).

Text Updated: 12/14