(Example trade name)
|Mode of action1||Selectivity2 (affected groups)||Predatory mites3||General predators4||Parasites4||Honey bees5||Duration of impact to natural enemies6|
|bifenazate (Acramite)||un||narrow (spider mites)||L||L||L||II||short|
|malathion||1B||broad (insects, mites)||H||H||H||I||moderate|
|petroleum oil||un||broad (exposed insects, mites)||L7||L||L||II||short to none|
|—||= no information|
|un||= unknown or uncertain mode of action|
|1||Rotate insecticides with a different mode-of-action group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a group number of 1B; insecticides with a 1B group number should be alternated with insecticides that have a group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers for insecticides and miticides (un=unknown or uncertain mode of action) are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).|
|2||Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.|
|3||Toxicites are generally to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.|
|4||Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.|
|5||Ratings are as follows: I–Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering including weeds. Do not allow pesticide to contaminate water accessible to bees including puddles. II–Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering including weeds, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the label and regulations. Do not allow pesticide to contaminate water accessible to bees including puddles. III–No bee precaution, except when required by the label or regulations.
|6||Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.|
|7||Rating depends on rate used.|
Acknowledgments: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M.L. and S.H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.