Agriculture: Dry Beans Pest Management Guidelines

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Dry Beans to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

Common name
(Example trade name)
Mode of action1 Selectivity2
(affected groups)
Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
abamectin (Agri-Mek) 6 moderate (mites, leafminers) M L M/H I moderate
acephate (Orthene) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H M/H I moderate
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai (Xentari) 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki (Deliver) 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III short
beta-cyfluthrin/imidacloprid (Leverage) 3A/4A broad (insects, mites10) H H H I long
bifenazate (Acramite) 20D narrow (spider mites) L L L III short
bifenthrin (Bifenture) 3A broad (insects, mites10) H H H I long
bifenthrin (Capture) 3A broad (insects, mites10) H H H I long
bifenthrin / imidacloprid (Brigadier) 3A/4A broad (insects, mites10) H H H I long
bifenthrin / zeta-cypermethrin (Hero) 3A/3A broad (insects, mites10) H H H I long
carbaryl (Sevin) 1A broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M III short
cyfluthrin (Baythroid) 3A broad (insects, mites10) H H H I long
cyromazine (Trigard) 17 narrow (leafminers) L L L II short
dimethoate (Dimethoate EC) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I long
flupyradifurone (Sivanto) 4D narrow (aphids, leafhoppers) II
hexythiazox (Onager) 10A narrow (mites) M L L II short to moderate
imidacloprid (Admire Pro) 4A narrow (wireworms, aphids, leafhoppers) H I short to moderate
indoxacarb (Steward) 22A narrow (caterpillars, plant bugs) L L L I moderate
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior II) 3A broad (plant bugs, beetles, caterpillars) H H H I long
malathion (Fyfanon) 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
novaluron (Rimon) 15 narrow (caterpillars) L L I short
propargite (Comite) 12C narrow (pest mites) M7 L L III short
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, scales, leafminers) L M8 L/M II moderate9
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, leafminers) L M8 L/M II short to moderate8
spinosad (Seduce Bait) 5 narrow (cutworms) II short
thiamethoxam (Cruiser) 4A narrow (aphids, lygus bug, seedcorn maggot, wireworms) M I short
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang Maxx ) 3A broad (insects, mites10) H M M I moderate
H = high       M = moderate       L = low       — = no information
1 Rotate pesticides with a different mode-of-action group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a group number of 1B; pesticides with a 1B group number should be alternated with pesticides that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific pesticide depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I–Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering including weeds. Do not allow pesticide to contaminate water accessible to bees including puddles. II–Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering including weeds, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the label and regulations. Do not allow pesticide to contaminate water accessible to bees including puddles. III–No bee precaution, except when required by the label or regulations. For more information, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to two weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 Use lowest rates for best management of western predatory mite/spider mite ratio.
8 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5 to 7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
9 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.
10 Selectivity is mainly to predatory mites rather than pest mite species. May cause flare-ups of pest mite species.

Acknowledgments: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M.L. and S.H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

Text Updated: 06/18