Agriculture: Cole Crops Pest Management Guidelines

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Cole Crops to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

Common name
(Example trade name)
Mode of action1 Selectivity2
(affected groups)
Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
acephate (Orthene) 1B broad (insects) H H M/H I moderate
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A moderate (larvae, sucking insects) 7 8 II moderate
azadirachtin (DeBug, Aza-Direct) un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai (Agree) 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki (Condor) 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III short
Beauveria bassiana strain GHA (Mycotrol) broad (insects) L L/M L II
beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
bifenthrin (Brigade, Capture) 3A broad (insects) H H H I long
buprofezin (Courier) 16 narrow (sucking insects, beetles) L H L II long
heat-killed Burkholderia spp. strain A396 and spent fermentation media (Venerate) broad (insects, mites) L II
carbaryl bait (Sevin bait) 1A narrow (armyworms, cutworms) L L L III short
carbaryl (Sevin) 1A broad (insects) M/H H H I long
chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) 28 broad (caterpillars, lygus, maggots) L L L/M III
clothianidin (Belay) 4A sucking insects (aphids) M/H M/H I long
clothianidin seed treatment
(NipsIt Vegetables)
4A broad (soil pests, sucking insects) L I
cryolite (Prokil) 8C narrow (foliage-chewing insects) L L L III short
cyantraniliprole, foliar (Exirel) 28 narrow (thrips, leafminers) L L I short
cyantraniliprole, soil (Verimark) 28 narrow (thrips, leafminers) L L I short
cyromazine (Trigard) 17 narrow (leafminers) L L L II short
diazinon 1B broad (insects) L H H I moderate to long
dinotefuran (Scorpion, Venom) 4A narrow (sucking insects) L L I short
emamectin benzoate (Proclaim) 6 narrow (caterpillars) I
esfenvalerate (Asana) 3A broad (insects) H M H I moderate
ethoprop (Mocap) 1B narrow (soil insects) L L L II moderate
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I
flonicamid (Beleaf) 29 narrow (aphids, plant bugs) L L L III short
flupyradifurone (Sivanto Prime) 4D narrow (aphids, leafhoppers, whiteflies) II
imidacloprid (Admire Pro) 4A narrow (sucking insects) M H I long
indoxacarb (Avaunt) 22A narrow (caterpillars) I
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) un broad (insects) M M M III short to none
Isaria fumosorosea Apopka strain 97
(PFR-97)
broad (insects, mites) II
kaolin clay (Surround) un broad (insects, mites) M M III long
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior) 3A broad (insects) H H H I moderate
methomyl (Lannate) 1A broad (insects) H H H I moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
narrow-range oils broad (exposed insects) L L L II short to none
novaluron (Rimon) 15 broad (caterpillars, sucking insects) L L I short
permethrin (Perm-Up) 3A broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
polyhedral occlusion bodies (OBs) of the nucleopolyhedrovirus of Spodoptera exigua (Spod-X) narrow (caterpillars)
pymetrozine (Fulfill) 9B narrow (aphids, whiteflies) II
pyrethrins (PyGanic) 3A broad (insects) M M I short
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 narrow (aphids, caterpillars, leafminers, whiteflies) L/H M9 L/M II moderate10
spinosad bait (Seduce) 5 narrow (cutworms) L L L II none to short
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (aphids, caterpillars, leafminers, whiteflies) L M9 L/M II short to moderate9
spiromesifen (Oberon) 23 narrow (whiteflies) II
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (aphids, whiteflies) II
sulfoxaflor (Sequoia) 4C I
thiamethoxam (Actara, Platinum) 4A narrow (sucking insects) 7 M I moderate
thiamethoxam/ chlorantraniliprole (Durivo) 4A/28 broad (caterpillars, maggots, sucking insects) I/III moderate
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang) 3A broad (insects, mites) H M M I moderate
H = high     M = moderate    L = low     — = no information     un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
1 Rotate insecticides with a different mode-of-action group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a group number of 1B; insecticides with a 1B group number should be alternated with insecticides that have a group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific insecticide depends on factors including the application rate, environmental conditions, and the species and life stage of the parasite or predator.
5 Ratings are as follows: I–Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering. II–Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations. Do not allow pesticide to contaminate water accessible to bees, including puddles. III–No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to two weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause increase in spider mites.
8 Low acute toxicity, but can impact reproductive capacity.
9 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory beetles, lacewing larvae, syrphid fly larvae, and predatory thrips) when sprayed and up to 5 to 7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
10 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guidelines database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

Text Updated: 12/20