Agriculture: Citrus Pest Management Guidelines

Mandatory Intervals Between Application, Reentry, and Harvest, and Hazards to Bees

Common name Example trade name and formulation Restricted entry interval1 (hours) Preharvest
interval1(days)
Mode-of-action group number2 Hazards to bees3
abamectin Agri-Mek SC 12 7 6 I
abamectin (bait) Clinch Ant Bait 12 0 6
acequinocyl Kanemite 15SC 12 7 20B III
acetamiprid Assail 70WP, 30SG 12 7 4A II
afidopyropen Sefina Inscalis 12 0 9D
azadirachtin Neemix 4.5 4 0 un II
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai# various 4 0 11A II
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki# various 4 0 11A III
beta-cyfluthrin Baythroid XL 12 0 3A I
bifenazate Acramite 50WS 12 1 year 20D II
bifenthrin Brigade WSB 12 1 3A I
buprofezin Centaur WDG 12 3 16 II
carbaryl* Sevin XLR Plus 12 hours or 3 days 5 1A I
chlorantraniliprole Altacor 4 1 28 III
chlorpyrifos* Lorsban Advanced 5 days 28 1B I
Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 Grandevo 4 0 II
cryolite Prokil Cryolite 96 12 15 8C III
cyantraniliprole (soil) Verimark 4 1 28
cyantraniliprole (foliar) Exirel 12 1 28
cyantraniliprole/abamectin Minecto Pro 12 7 28/6
cyflumetofen Nealta 12 7 25
cyfluthrin Tombstone 12 0 3A I
diflubenzuron Micromite 80WGS, 2L 12 7 15 II
dimethoate Dimethoate 400 and 2.67 10 or 14 days 15 1B I
fenbutatin oxide Vendex 50WP 48 7 12B III
fenpropathrin Danitol 2.4EC 24 1 3A I
fenpyroximate Fujimite SC 12 3 21A III
flonicamid Beleaf 50SG 12 0 29 III
flupyradifurone (foliar) Sivanto 200SL 12 1 4D II
formetanate hydrochloride Carzol SP 9 days4 30 1A II
hexythiazox Onager 12 7 10A II
imidacloprid (soil) Admire Pro 12 0 4A I
imidacloprid (foliar) Admire Pro 12 0 4A I
imidacloprid (foliar)/beta-cyfluthrin Leverage 360 12 0 4A/3A
iron phosphate Sluggo 0 0
malathion Malathion 8 Flowable 72 7 1B I
metaflumizone Altrevin Fire Ant Bait 12 5 22B III
metaldehyde various 12 0 III
methomyl* Lannate LV, SP 3 days 1 1A I
methoxyfenozide Intrepid 2F 4 1 18 II
micronized sulfur various 24 0 III
naled Dibrom 8 Emulsive 48 7 1B I
neem oil Trilogy 4 0 II
oil  415, 435, 440 4–12 05 II
phosmet Imidan 70W 3 days 7 1B I
pyrethrins PyGanic 1.4EC, 5.0EC 12 0 3A I
pyrethrins/piperonyl butoxide Pyrenone Crop Spray 12 0 3A/— I
pyridaben Nexter 12 7 21A I
pyriproxyfen Esteem 0.86EC 12 1 7C II
pyriproxyfen (bait) Esteem Ant Bait 12 1 7C III
rosemary oil/peppermint oil Ecotrol EC 0 0 III
sabadilla Veratran D# 12 0 II
spinetoram Delegate WG 4 1 5 II
spinosad Success, Entrust# 4 1 5 II
spirodiclofen Envidor 2SC 12 7 23 II
spirotetramat Movento 24 1 23 II
sodium ferric edta Ferroxx 0 0
thiamethoxam (soil) Actara 12 0 4A I
thiamethoxam (foliar) Platinum 75SG 12 0 4A I
thiamethoxam/abamectin Agri-Flex 12 7 4A/6
thiamethoxam/chlorantraniliprole Voliam Flexi 12 1 4A/28
wettable sulfur# various 24 0 III
zeta-cypermethrin Mustang 12 1 3A I
Information not available
* Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use.
# Acceptable for use on organically grown produce.
NA Not applicable; for use on nonbearing trees only.
1 Restricted entry interval (REI) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (PHI) is the number of days from treatment until the orchard can be harvested. In some cases, the REI exceeds the PHI; the longer of these two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest may take place.
2 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers (un = unknown or uncertain mode of action) are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
3 Ratings are as follows: I—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III—No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings
4 Do not apply during bloom because bees may be drawn to irrigation water.
5 Special hazards are associated with oil treatments on green lemons; check label for preharvest interval.

Acknowledgments: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

Text Updated: 07/20