Agriculture: Citrus Pest Management Guidelines

Broad Mite

  • Polyphagotarsonemus latus
  • Description of the Pest

    Broad mites are often found in depressions on fruit where the females lay their eggs, which are dimpled, translucent, and covered in white speckles. These mites are so small you need a hand lens to see them. Broad mites are yellowish and adult females have a white stripe on the back.

    Damage

    Broad mites feed on fruit and leaves, preferring young fruit up to about 1 inch (2.5 cm) in diameter that are located on the inside of the canopy or on the inward facing side of outer fruit. Feeding results in scarred tissue that cracks as fruit grows, leaving a characteristic pattern of scars and new tissue. Although most feeding occurs on fruit, broad mites may also feed on young expanding leaves causing them to curl. This cupping and curling of leaves can appear similar to mild damage caused by glyphosate (Roundup) applications, nutritional (boron) deficiencies, or physiological disorders.

    Management

    Broad mites are occasional pests of coastal lemons from late July through early October; infestations are enhanced by the presence of Argentine ants. This mite often occurs in conjunction with CITRUS RUST MITE, with the rust mite usually predominating in number. Populations of broad mite tend to be most severe in warm, humid conditions such as those found in greenhouses. No treatment thresholds have been developed for broad mite in citrus. If high and increasing numbers warrant a pesticide application, use miticides with the least toxicity to predaceous mites.

    Common name Amount to use REI‡ PHI‡
    (Example trade name) (type of coverage)** (hours) (days)
    Not all registered pesticides are listed. The following are ranked with the pesticides having the greatest IPM value listed first—the most effective and least harmful to natural enemies, honey bees, and the environment are at the top of the table. When choosing a pesticide, consider information relating to air and water quality, resistance management, and the pesticide's properties and application timing. Always read the label of the product being used.
    A. ABAMECTIN/THIAMETHOXAM
    (Agri-Flex) 5.5–8.5 fl oz (OC) 12 7
    RANGE OF ACTIVITY: Pests: broad (many insects and mites); Natural enemies: most
    PERSISTENCE: Pests: intermediate; Natural enemies: intermediate
    MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 6/4A
    COMMENTS: Do not exceed a total of 17 fl oz of Agri-Flex or 0.047 lbs ai of abamectin-containing products or 0.172 lb a.i. of thiamethoxam-containing products per acre per growing season. Aerial application is not approved in California.
    . . . PLUS . . .
    415 NARROW RANGE OIL
    (various products) 0.25–1% See label See label
    RANGE OF ACTIVITY: Pests: broad (unprotected stages of insects and mites); Natural enemies: most
    PERSISTENCE: Pests: short; Natural enemies: short
    MODE OF ACTION: Contact including smothering and barrier effects; also improves translaminar movement and insecticide persistence.
    COMMENTS: For use on all varieties. Certain formulations emit high amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); use low-VOC formulations. Regulations affect use for the San Joaquin Valley from May 1 to October 31, 2020. Review the Department of Pesticide Regulation’s updated fact sheet.
    B. ABAMECTIN
    (Agri-Mek SC) 2.25–4.25 fl oz (OC or IC) 12 7
    RANGE OF ACTIVITY: Pests: intermediate (citrus thrips, mites, leafminers); Natural enemies: predatory mites & thrips
    PERSISTENCE: Pests: intermediate; Natural enemies: intermediate
    MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 6
    . . . PLUS . . .
    415 NARROW RANGE OIL
    (various products) 0.25–1% See label See label
    RANGE OF ACTIVITY: Pests: broad (unprotected stages of insects and mites); Natural enemies: most
    PERSISTENCE: Pests: short; Natural enemies: short
    MODE OF ACTION: Contact including smothering effects; also improves translaminar movement and insecticide persistence.
    COMMENTS: For use on all varieties. Certain formulations emit high amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); use low-VOC formulations. Regulations affect use for the San Joaquin Valley from May 1 to October 31, 2020. Review the Department of Pesticide Regulation's updated fact sheet.
     
    C. CYANTRANILIPROLE/ABAMECTIN
      (Minecto Pro) 10–12 fl oz/acre 12 7
      RANGE OF ACTIVITY: Pests: broad (many insects and mites); Natural enemies: predatory mites
      PERSISTENCE: Pests: intermediate; Natural enemies: intermediate
      MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 28/6
      ...PLUS...
      415 NARROW RANGE OIL
      (various products) 0.25–1% See label See label
      RANGE OF ACTIVITY: Pests: broad (unprotected stages of insects and mites); Natural enemies: most
      PERSISTENCE: Pests: short; Natural enemies: short
      MODE OF ACTION: Contact including smothering and barrier effects; also improves translaminar movement and insecticide persistence.
      COMMENTS: Do not exceed a total of 24 fl oz of Minecto Pro or 0.40 lbs a.i. of cyantraniliprole-containing products or 0.047 lbs a.i. of abamectin-containing products/acre per calendar year. Do not apply to nurseries. Aerial application is allowed only for citrus leafminer or Asian citrus psyllid.
    D. SPIRODICLOFEN
    (Envidor 2SC) See comments 12 7
    RANGE OF ACTIVITY: Pests: narrow (mites); Natural enemies: predatory mites
    PERSISTENCE: Pests: intermediate; Natural enemies: intermediate
    MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 23
    COMMENTS: Application rate is 12 to 20 fl oz/acre (OC or IC) when horticultural spray oil is not used, and 18 to 20 fl oz/acre (OC or IC) when it is. Treatments without oil are more effective.
    E. FENPYROXIMATE
    (FujiMite SC) 2–4 pt (OC or IC) 12 3
    RANGE OF ACTIVITY: Pests: narrow (mites); Natural enemies: predatory mites
    PERSISTENCE: Pests: intermediate; Natural enemies: intermediate
    MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 21A
    F. WETTABLE SULFUR#
    Label rates 24 0
    RANGE OF ACTIVITY: Pests: narrow (mites and citrus thrips); Natural enemies: most
    PERSISTENCE: Pests: intermediate; Natural enemies: intermediate
    MODE OF ACTION: Not available
    COMMENTS: For use on all varieties. Apply as mites appear; avoid applications during or preceding high temperatures (above 80ºF). Do not apply sulfur within 2 months of a previous oil spray or apply oil 60 to 90 days after a sulfur application.
    ** OC - Outside coverage uses 100 to 250 gal water/acre.
    IC - Intermediate coverage uses 250-600 gal/acre.
    Restricted entry interval (REI) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (PHI) is the number of days from treatment to harvest. In some cases the REI exceeds the PHI. The longer of two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest.
    # Acceptable for use on organically grown produce.
    * Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use.
    1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers (un = unknown or uncertain mode of action) are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
    Text Updated: 02/17
    Treatment Table Updated: 01/19