Agriculture: Cilantro and Parsley Pest Management Guidelines

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides Used in Cilantro and Parsley to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

Common name (Example trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity 2 (Affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
acetamiprid (Assail)± 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 7 8 II moderate
azadirachtin (Neemix, Aza-Direct) un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai (Xentari) 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. Kurstaki (Javelin WG) 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III short
Beauveria bassiana (BotaniGard) un broad (insects) II
chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M III short
dinotefuran (Venom)± 4A narrow (sucking insects) L L I short
emamectin benzoate (Proclaim)± 6 narrow (caterpillars) I
flonicamid (Beleaf)± 9C narrow (aphids) L L L III short
flupyradifurone (Sivanto) 4D Narrow (aphids, leafhoppers) II
indoxacarb (Avaunt)± 22A narrow (caterpillars) L L L I moderate
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) un broad (exposed insects, mites) M M M III short
methomyl (Lannate)± 1A broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) ± 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
narrow range oil (Glacial Spray Fluid)+ broad (exposed insects, mites) L9 L L II short to none
neem oil (Trilogy) un broad (soft-bodied insects) L L L II short
permethrin (Ambush, Pounce)± 3A broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
pymetrozine (Fulfill)± 9B narrow (aphids, whiteflies) L L L II short
rosemary oil (Hexacide) un broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L III
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, leafminers) L/H M10 L/M II moderate11
spinosad (Success, Entrust) 5 narrow (caterpillars, whiteflies, aphids, leafminers) L M10 L/M II moderate10
spirotetramat (Movento)± 23 narrow (aphids, whiteflies) L L L II short
thiamethoxam (Platinum)± 4A narrow (sucking insects) M I moderate
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang) 3A broad (insects, mites) H M M I moderate
H = high                 M = moderate                L = low              — = no information
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers (un = unknown or uncertain mode of action) are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I–Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering. Do not allow pesticide to contaminate water accessible to bees including puddles. II–Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations. Do not allow pesticide to contaminate water accessible to bees including puddles. III–No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
8 Acute toxicity low but reproductive capacity is impacted.
9 Rating depends on rate used.
10 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly larva, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5 to 7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
11 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.
± Registered on parsley, not on cilantro.
+ Registered on cilantro, not on parsley.

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

Text Updated: 01/19