Agriculture: Cherry Pest Management Guidelines

European Earwig

  • Forficula auricularia
  • Description of the Pest

    Earwigs are about 0.5 inch long, shiny brown, and have a forceps-like structures at the back end of the abdomen. Earwigs are nocturnal and their presence or damage may go unnoticed until harvest. They are active year round and have two generations per year.

    Damage

    Earwigs feed on fruit and foliage. Foliage feeding is of little concern in mature trees; it appears as numerous, irregular holes, ragged leaf edges, or both. However, shoot-tip feeding on young trees may stunt normal growth. Earwigs feeding on fruit results in shallow, irregular holes.

    Management

    Management requires the removal of daytime harboring sites and prevention of access to fruit before it ripens.

    Cultural Control

    Keep the area at the base of trees weed-free. Keep orchard clear of prunings, loose bark, or other debris under which earwigs may nest.

    Organically Acceptable Methods

    Cultural controls and sprays of the Entrust formulation of spinosad are acceptable for use on organically grown cherries.

    Monitoring and Treatment Decisions

    Assess populations at bloom and treat at the beginning of spring activity when earwigs are found. (For more information, see MONITORING PESTS AT BLOOM.) Sprays are more effective at night when earwigs have emerged from their daytime shelters and are exposed.

    Common name Amount to use** REI‡ PHI‡
    (Example trade name) (conc.) (dilute) (hours) (days)
    Not all registered pesticides are listed. The following are ranked with the pesticides having the greatest IPM value listed first—the most effective and least harmful to natural enemies, honey bees, and the environment are at the top of the table. When choosing a pesticide, consider information relating to air and water quality, resistance management, and the pesticide's properties and application timing. Always read the label of the product being used.
    A. CARBARYL*
    (Sevin XLR PLUS) 3–4 qt/acre 12 1
    MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1A
    COMMENTS: Applications at night are most effective. Spray on trunks and crotches of trees at the beginning of spring activity. Once high numbers are found in trees such an application will no longer be effective and a foliar spray is necessary. Do not apply more than 14 qt XLR PLUS/acre per season. The XLR PLUS formulation is less hazardous to honey bees than other formulations if applied from late evening to early morning when bees are not foraging. May cause mite flare ups.
    B. ESFENVALERATE*
    (Asana XL) 4.8–14.5 fl oz 2–5.8 fl oz 12 14
    MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3A
    COMMENTS: Applications at night are most effective. May cause serious outbreaks of spider mites. Do not exceed 0.375 lb a.i./acre per season. At 10 fl oz/acre has a 4-week residual; at 14 fl oz/acre has a 6-week residual. Highly toxic to bees; do not spray directly or allow to drift onto blooming crops or weeds where bees are foraging.
    C. LAMBDA-CYHALOTHRIN*
    (Warrior II with Zeon) 1.28–2.56 fl oz/acre 24 14
    MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3A
    COMMENTS: Applications at night are most effective. Highly toxic to bees; do not spray directly or allow to drift onto blooming crops or weeds where bees are foraging.
    D. SPINOSAD
    (Entrust)# 1.25–2.5 oz 0.42–0.83 oz 4 7
    MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 5
    COMMENTS: Applications at night are most effective. This product is toxic to bees for 3 hours following treatment; apply in late evening after bees have stopped foraging. Do not apply more than 9 oz/acre per year. Toxic to bees; do not spray directly or allow to drift onto blooming crops or weeds where bees are foraging.
    E. SPINETORAM
    (Delegate WG) 4.5–7 oz/acre 4 7
    MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 5
    COMMENTS: Toxic to bees; do not spray directly or allow to drift onto blooming crops or weeds where bees are foraging.
    ** For concentrate applications, use the amount given in 80–100 gal water/acre, or lower if the label allows; for dilute applications, amount is per 100 gal water to be applied in 300–400 gal water/acre, according to label.
    Restricted entry interval (REI) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (PHI) is the number of days from treatment to harvest. In some cases the REI exceeds the PHI. The longer of two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest.
    * Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use.
    1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
    # Acceptable for use on organically grown produce.
    Text Updated: 09/15
    Treatment Table Updated: 09/15