Agriculture: Cherry Pest Management Guidelines

Cherry Leafhopper

  • Fieberiella florii
  • Description of the Pest

    Adult cherry leafhoppers are dark brown and their shape and color mimic the buds of their hosts. This leafhopper overwinters as nymphs on ornamental hosts such as privet, boxwood, myrtle, hawthorn, pyracantha, Ceanothus, Cotoneaster, crabapple, and apple and as eggs on ornamental hosts and deciduous fruit trees. This leafhopper is not as active as the mountain leafhopper and does not travel as far in search of hosts. Cherry is a preferred host for this species. There are three periods of adult activity: mid-April through May; during July; and September through October.

    Damage

    This leafhopper is of concern as a vector of X-DISEASE (aka cherry buckskin) and can be responsible for severe outbreaks of this disease.

    Management

    When X-disease is present in an orchard or adjacent areas, the recommended management is two-pronged: regular in-season insecticide treatments, and the removal of infected trees soon after treatment while an effective insecticide residue is still present. For in-season treatments, treat immediately after harvest and at 4- to 6-week intervals thereafter. The actual length of the interval depends upon the residual effectiveness of the insecticide used.

    When the incidence of X-disease is high in the orchard and in instances where in-season control has been unsatisfactory (usually rare), consider making a dormant or delayed-dormant (from December to February) treatment for this leafhopper in addition to an in-season spray program.

    It is also advisable to treat and remove ornamental hosts of leafhoppers in or near the orchard that vector the pathogen that causes X-disease. Use an insecticide registered for ornamentals and make the first treatment during the dormant period or in March to early April for overwintering nymphs. Make a second treatment in latter half of June to control nymphs that have hatched from overwintering eggs. Yellow sticky traps may provide information on the types and sources of leafhoppers but should not be used for treatment decisions.

    Common name Amount to use** REI‡ PHI‡
    (Example trade name) (conc.) (dilute) (hours) (days)
    Not all registered pesticides are listed. The following are ranked with the pesticides having the greatest IPM value listed first—the most effective and least harmful to natural enemies, honey bees, and the environment are at the top of the table. When choosing a pesticide, consider information relating to air and water quality, resistance management, and the pesticide's properties and application timing. Always read the label of the product being used.
     
    DORMANCY OR DELAYED-DORMANCY
     
    A. NARROW RANGE OIL Label rates See label 0
      MODE OF ACTION: Improves translaminar movement and insecticide persistence.
      . . . PLUS . . .
      DIAZINON*
      (Diazinon 50W) 1 1/4 lb/100 gal water 96 (4 days) 21
      MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1B
      COMMENTS: Provides only immediate control. No control 2 days after application. Avoid drift and tailwater runoff into surface waters. Where cherries are grown adjacent to waterways, do not use this material. Highly toxic to bees; do not spray directly or allow to drift onto blooming crops or weeds where bees are foraging.
      . . . or . . .
      ESFENVALERATE*
      (Asana XL) 4.8–14.5 fl oz 2–5.8 fl oz 12 14
      MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3A
      COMMENTS: Provides long-term control. May cause serious outbreaks of spider mites. Do not exceed 0.375 lb a.i./acre per season. Pyrethroids applied at this time can be disruptive to beneficials. Highly toxic to bees; do not spray directly or allow to drift onto blooming crops or weeds where bees are foraging.
     
    POSTHARVEST
     
    A. ESFENVALERATE*
      (Asana XL) 4.8–14.5 fl oz 2–5.8 fl oz 12 14
      MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3A
      COMMENTS: Provides long-term control. May cause serious outbreaks of spider mites. Do not exceed 0.375 lb a.i./acre per season. At 10 fl oz/acre has a 4-week residual; at 14 fl oz/acre has a 6-week residual. Highly toxic to bees; do not spray directly or allow to drift onto blooming crops or weeds where bees are foraging.
     
    B. LAMBDA-CYHALOTHRIN*
      (Warrior II with Zeon) 1.28–2.56 fl oz/acre 24 14
      MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3A
      COMMENTS: Toxic to bees; do not spray directly or allow to drift onto blooming crops or weeds where bees are foraging.
     
    C. THIAMETHOXAM
      (Actara) 2–2.75 oz/acre 12 14
      MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4A
      COMMENTS: May only be applied once after bloom. Do not apply by air. Has a 4-week residual at the highest label rate. Highly toxic to bees; do not spray directly or allow to drift onto blooming crops or weeds where bees are foraging.
     
    D. DIAZINON*
      (Diazinon 50W) 1 lb/100 gal water 96 (4 days) 21
      MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1B
      COMMENTS: Provides only immediate control. No control 2 days after application. Avoid drift and tailwater runoff into surface waters. Where cherries are grown adjacent to waterways, do not use this material. Highly toxic to bees; do not spray directly or allow to drift onto blooming crops or weeds where bees are foraging.
    ** For concentrate applications, use the amount given in 80–100 gal water/acre, or lower if the label allows; for dilute applications, amount is per 100 gal water to be applied in 300–400 gal water/acre, according to label.
    Restricted entry interval (REI) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (PHI) is the number of days from treatment to harvest. In some cases the REI exceeds the PHI. The longer of two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest.
    * Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use.
    1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
    Text Updated: 09/15
    Treatment Table Updated: 09/15