Agriculture: Caneberries Pest Management Guidelines

Cane and Leaf Rust

  • Kuehneola uredinis
  • Symptoms and Signs

    Cane and leaf rust occurs on some blackberry cultivars, especially trailing varieties such as olallieberry. The first symptom of cane and leaf rust is lemon yellow pustules (uredinia) that split the bark of the fruiting canes of susceptible blackberries. Spores from these pustules (urediniospores) infect leaves and produce small yellow pustules (uredinia) on the underside of leaves during early summer. Defoliation can occur if infection is severe. Buff-colored telia develop among the uredinia on leaves in early fall.

    It is important not to confuse this common blackberry disease with the less common but far more damaging orange rust, which causes plants to produce many small, weak shoots from the base of the plant.

    Comments on the Disease

    On susceptible blackberry varieties leaf defoliation can be severe and result in the loss of plant vigor. Normally cane and leaf rust doesn't infect the fruit but masses of spores falling on fruit can render it unmarketable. Raspberries are hosts, but occurrence of this disease on this crop is rare. Wet spring conditions will favor disease development. The fungus overwinters on canes as mycelium or latent uredinia. Cane and leaf rust can be distinguished from orange rust by the presence of yellow pustules (uredinia) on both the canes and leaves. Orange rust has orange pustules on leaves only.

    Management

    Control is best achieved by using cultural methods to reduce pathogen sources in combination with fungicides. Remove and dispose of fruit canes soon after harvest to reduce inoculum sources. Highly susceptible varieties with a history of this disease should receive applications of protective fungicides before the onset of disease symptoms and pathogen signs.

    Organically Acceptable Methods

    Removal of fruited canes after harvest and sprays of lime sulfur or some fixed coppers are acceptable management tools in an organically certified crop.

    Treatment Decisions

    A recommended spray control program is a winter application of lime sulfur followed by fixed copper applied at green tip stage and then a treatment at bloom.

    Common name Amount per acre REI‡ PHI‡
    (Example trade name) (hours) (days)
    Not all registered pesticides are listed. The following are ranked with the pesticides having the greatest IPM value listed first—the most effective and least likely to cause resistance are at the top of the table. When choosing a pesticide, consider information relating to the pesticide's properties and application timing, honey bees, and environmental impact. Always read the label of the product being used.
     
    DORMANT
    A. LIME SULFUR# 8 gal/100 gal water 48 0
      MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): Multi-site contact (M2)
      COMMENTS: Apply in 200 gal water/acre.
     
    DELAYED DORMANT
    A. FIXED COPPERS# Label rates 24 0
      MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): Multi-site contact (M1)
      COMMENTS: Not all copper compounds are approved for use in organic production; be sure to check individual products.
     
    B. LIME SULFUR# 8 gal/100 gal water 48 0
      MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): Multi-site contact (M2)
     
    FIRST BLOOM
    A. FIXED COPPERS# Label rates 24 0
      MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): Multi-site contact (M1)
      COMMENTS: For organically certified produce, check with your certifier for acceptable copper formulations.
     
    B. MYCLOBUTANIL
      (Rally 40WSP) 1.25–3 oz 24 0
      MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): Demethylation inhibitor (3)
      COMMENTS: Initiate applications as early as budbreak and continue at 10- to 14-day intervals. Shorter intervals may be used under heavy disease pressure. Do not apply more than 10 oz/acre per season.
     
    C. PYRACLOSTROBIN+BOSCALID
      (Pristine) 18.5–23 oz 12 0
      MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): Quinone outside inhibitor (11) and Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (7)
     
    D. PYRACLOSTROBIN
      (Cabrio EG) 14 oz 12 0
      MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): Quinone outside inhibitor (11)
    # Acceptable for use on organically grown produce.
    Restricted entry interval (REI) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (PHI) is the number of days from treatment to harvest. In some cases the REI exceeds the PHI. The longer of two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest.
    1 Group numbers are assigned by the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) according to different modes of actions. Fungicides with a different group number are suitable to alternate in a resistance management program. In California, make no more than one application of fungicides with mode of action Group numbers 1, 4, 9, 11, or 17 before rotating to a fungicide with a different mode of action Group number; for fungicides with other Group numbers, make no more than two consecutive applications before rotating to a fungicide with a different mode of action Group number.
    Text Updated: 12/09
    Treatment Table Updated: 06/15