Agriculture: Blueberry Pest Management Guidelines

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Blueberry to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

Common name
(Example trade name)
Mode of action1 Selectivity 2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators 4 Parasites 4 Honey bees 5 Duration of impact to natural enemies 6
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 7 II moderate
azadirachtin (Aza-Direct) un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III none
bifenthrin (Brigade) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I long
cyantraniliprole (Exirel) 28 narrow (sucking insects, caterpillars) L L L short
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I
Imidacloprid, systemic (Admire Pro) 4A narrow (sucking insects) 7 H I short to moderate
malathion 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I moderate
methomyl (Lannate) 1A broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
pyrethrin (Evergreen, PyGanic) 3A broad (insects) M M I short
spinetoram (Delegate) 5 broad (caterpillars, aphids, scales) L/M M M/H II moderate8
spinosad (Entrust) 5 narrow (caterpillars, aphids, scales) L M L/M II short
H = high          M = moderate     v    L = low         — = no information           un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
1 Rotate pesticides with a different mode-of-action group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a group number of 1B; insecticides with a 1B group number should be alternated with insecticides that have a group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers for insecticides and miticides (un=unknown or uncertain mode of action) are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Toxicities are generally to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific insecticide depends on factors including the application rate, environmental conditions, and life stage and species of parasite or predator.
5 Ratings are as follows: I—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III—No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause increase in spider mites numbers.
8 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.

Acknowledgments: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

Text Updated: 12/18