Agriculture: Artichoke Pest Management Guidelines

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Artichokes to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

Common name
(Example trade name)
Mode of action1 Selectivity2
(affected groups)
Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
azadirachtin (Neemix) un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III short
bifenthrin (Brigade) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I long
chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M III short
diflubenzuron (Dimilin) 15 L H L II
esfenvalerate (Asana) 3A broad (insect, mites) H M H I moderate
imidacloprid (Admire Pro) 4A narrow (sucking insects) H I short to moderate
metaldehyde (Deadline) un narrow (snails and slugs) L H L III short
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
neem oil (Trilogy) un broad (soft-bodied insects) L L L II short
permethrin (Pounce, Perm-Up) 3A broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 Narrow (caterpillars, whiteflies, aphids, leafminers) L/H M7 L/M II moderate8
spinosad (Entrust) 5 narrow (caterpillars, whiteflies, aphids, leafminers) L M7 L/M II short to moderate
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (aphids, scale, psyllids, whiteflies) L L L II short
thiamethoxam (Actara) 4A narrow (sucking insects) 9 M I moderate
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang) 3A broad (insects) H M M I moderate
H = high          M = moderate          L = low         — = no information           un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
1 Rotate insecticides with a different mode-of-action group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a group number of 1B; insecticides with a 1B group number should be alternated with insecticides that have a group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers (un = unknown or uncertain mode of action) are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific insecticide depends on factors including the application rate, environmental conditions, and the species of parasite or predator.
5 Ratings are as follows: I—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III—No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory beetles, lacewing larvae, syrphid fly larvae, and predatory thrips) when sprayed and up to 5 to 7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
8 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.
9 May cause increase in spider mites.

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guidelines database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

Text Updated: 02/20