Agriculture: Apple Pest Management Guidelines

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Apples to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

Common name (Example trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
abamectin (Agri-Mek) 6 moderate (mites, leafminers) H L M/H I moderate to predatory mites and affected insects
acequinocyl (Kanemite) 20B narrow (mites) L III
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) L7 8 II moderate
azadirachtin (Neemix) un broad (insects, mites) L/M L/M II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III short
bifenazate (Acramite) 20D narrow (spider mites) L L L II short
buprofezin (Centaur) 16 narrow (sucking insects) L H8 L II long
chlorantraniliprole (Altacor) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M III short
clofentezine (Apollo) 10A narrow (mites) M L L III short
clothianidin (Belay) 4A M/H M/H I
Cydia pomenella granulovirus (Cyd-X) narrow (codling moth) none none none III none
diazinon 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I moderate to long
esfenvalerate (Asana) 3A broad (insect, mites) H M H I moderate
etoxazole (Zeal) 10B narrow (mites) H8 L II short
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I
fenpyroximate (Fujimite) 21A narrow (mites and some insects) H L L III short
hexythiazox (Savey) 10A narrow (mites) M L L II short to moderate
imidacloprid (Admire Pro) 4A narrow (sucking insects) H I short to moderate
indoxacarb (Avaunt) 22A narrow (caterpillars) L L I moderate
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) broad (insects, mites) M M M III short
kaolin clay (Surround) broad (insects, mites) M M III long
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior) 3A broad (plant bugs, beetles, caterpillars) H H H I moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
neem oil (Trilogy) broad (soft-bodied insects) L L L II short
petroleum oil broad (exposed insects, mites) L9 L L III short
phosmet (Imidan) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
pyridaben (Nexter) 21A broad (insect, mites) M/H M I short
pyriproxyfen (Esteem, Seize) 7C narrow (scale, beetles) L H10 L III long
spinetoram (Delegate) 5 narrow (caterpillars, aphids, scales, leafminers) L/M M11 L/M II moderate12
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, aphids, scales, leafminers) M M11 L/M II short to moderate11
spirodiclofen (Envidor) 23 narrow (mites) L II
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (aphids) L L L II short
sulfur narrow (mites) L/H M/L H III short
H = high     M = moderate    L = low    — = no information     un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicites are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III—No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
8 Does not kill adults but sterilizes females.
9 Rating depends on rate used.
10 Kills lady beetles.
11 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5 to 7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
12 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.

Acknowledgments: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

Text Updated: 10/15