Agriculture: Apple Pest Management Guidelines

Lygus Bugs

  • Lygus bug: Lygus hesperus
  • Lygus bugs: Lygus elisus
  • Description of the Pest

    Lygus bugs vary in color from pale green to yellowish brown with reddish brown to black markings, but can be distinguished by a prominent triangle in the center of the back. The lygus bug adult is about 0.25 inch long and 0.1 inch wide, flattened on the back. Nymphs resemble adults, but are smaller and do not have wings.

    Damage

    Lygus bug damage may occur in all major apple districts and sometimes is severe. Lygus attack is more frequent in orchards that have a permanent cover crop and in orchards adjacent to crops or vegetation that host lygus.

    Lygus bugs may feed on developing flower buds early in spring, causing the buds to exude gum and shrivel up. Usually this damage is not serious unless a very heavy infestation is present. Lygus cause their most serious damage by feeding directly on fruit. Midseason feeding results in round pits, and late-season feeding causes irregularly-shaped depressions that are similar to stink bug damage.

    Management

    The potential for a lygus bug population to cause damage is difficult to assess. Lygus bugs may be present in substantial numbers in the orchard and cause no damage; however, they can often cause damage and may attack fruit at any time from petal fall to harvest. Annual preventive treatments are costly and subject to failure because lygus bugs have been quick to develop resistance to chemicals. In orchards with a history of lygus damage, monitor fruit at least biweekly between petal fall and harvest to assess need for treatment.

    Biological Control

    The role of predators and parasites in controlling lygus in orchards has not been investigated, but in cotton and strawberries, beneficials have been shown to be helpful.

    Cultural Control

    Eliminate or suppress weed host plants before fruit forms on trees and thereafter throughout the growing season to minimize lygus populations. Yellow starthistle, Russian thistle, tarweed, sweet clover, wild mustard, lambsquarters, pigweed, shepherd's-purse, wild radish, and vetch are important hosts. Do not mow cover crops or weeds when lygus bugs are present or they will move into the trees.

    Organically Acceptable Methods

    Cultural and biological control are organically acceptable.

    Monitoring and Treatment Decisions

    After fruit has formed, sample the cover crop with a sweep net to determine if lygus bugs are present in the orchard. If they are, or if an orchard has had a history of lygus injury, take fruit samples at least every 2 weeks starting soon after petal fall and continue until harvest. Lygus bugs may be present in the orchard but not feeding on the fruit, so you need to check the fruit for damage. Examine a minimum of 100 fruits from trees throughout the block. Because lygus damage is often spotty in distribution, check each block thoroughly. Lygus may migrate into the orchard at any time during the growing season and damage frequently appears first along orchard borders. One damaged apple in 100 is significant for concern and calls for further sampling and evaluation of control needs. When sampling fruit for other pests, also look for the presence of lygus bugs on fruit or in the trees to determine if they are still present in the orchard. Especially be on the lookout for lygus when weeds start to dry up. Because the bugs move quickly and may be difficult to see, the number seen will depend on the skill of the observer. When lygus are migrating into an orchard, periodic spraying of border trees will hold down numbers and reduce damage.

    Common name Amount per acre** REI‡ PHI‡
    (Example trade name) (conc.) (dilute) (hours) (days)
    Not all registered pesticides are listed. The following are ranked with the pesticides having the greatest IPM value listed first—the most effective and least harmful to natural enemies, honey bees, and the environment are at the top of the table. When choosing a pesticide, consider information relating to air and water quality, resistance management, and the pesticide's properties and application timing. Always read the label of the product being used.
     
    A. FENPROPATHRIN*
      (Danitol 2.4EC) 16–21.33 fl oz 24 14
      MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3A
      COMMENTS: Highly toxic to bees; do not spray directly or allow to drift onto blooming crops or weeds where bees are foraging.
     
    B. CLOTHIANIDIN
      (Belay) 6–12 fl oz 12 7
      MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4A
      COMMENTS: Toxic to bees; do not spray directly or allow to drift onto blooming crops or weeds where bees are foraging.
     
    C. ACETAMIPRID
      (Assail 70 WP) 3.4 oz 12 7
      MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4A
      COMMENTS: Do not make more than 4 applications per season. Do not exceed 13.5 oz/acre per crop. Repeat applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide (acetamiprid-Assail and imidacloprid- Admire Pro) can lead to resistance to all neonicotinoids. Alternate neonicotinoids with an insecticide that has a different mode of action to help delay the development of resistance. Toxic to bees; do not spray directly or allow to drift onto blooming crops or weeds where bees are foraging.
     
    D. IMIDACLOPRID
      (Admire Pro) 2.8 fl oz 12 7
      MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4A
      COMMENTS: Repeat applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide (acetamiprid-Assail and imidacloprid- Admire Pro) can lead to resistance to all neonicotinoids. Alternate neonicotinoids with an insecticide that has a different mode of action to help delay the development of resistance. Highly toxic to bees; do not spray directly or allow to drift onto blooming crops or weeds where bees are foraging.
    ** For dilute application, rate is per 100 gal water to be applied in 300 to 500 gal water/acre, according to label; for concentrate applications, use 80 to 100 gal water/acre or lower if the label allows.
    Restricted entry interval (REI) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (PHI) is the number of days from treatment to harvest. In some cases the REI exceeds the PHI. The longer of two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest.
    1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
    Text Updated: 03/09
    Treatment Table Updated: 10/15