Agriculture: Almond Pest Management Guidelines

Shot Hole

Symptoms and Signs

Spots occur on leaves, fruit, twigs, and flowers; however, flower and twig lesions are relatively scarce or difficult to find. Leaf lesions begin as tiny reddish specks that enlarge by several millimeters into spots having tan centers and purplish margins. When the fungus sporulates, the fruiting structure appears as a small dark speck (the sporodochium and spores) in the center of the spot; this is a diagnostic characteristic of shot hole disease. Spots on young leaves usually fall out, leaving a hole (the shot hole); older leaves retain their lesions. Fruit spots are small with purplish margins, slightly corky, and raised. Spots are found on the upper surface of fruit with respect to the way it hangs on trees. Heavy infection of young fruit may cause fruit drop or distortion and gumming of fruit.

Comments on the Disease

The fungus survives on infected twigs and as spores in healthy buds. Spores are moved by water to new sites; prolonged periods of wetness, either due to rain or sprinkler irrigation, are required for the disease to develop. Shot hole can cause losses in yield, defoliation, and weakened trees.

Management

Monitor orchards in fall and spring for shot hole lesions and fruiting structures. Fruiting structures appear in the center of leaf lesions as small black spots and can be seen with a hand lens.

In the fall:

  • If fruiting structures are present in leaf lesions, there is a high risk of shot hole development the following spring and a petal fall treatment should be applied
  • If fruiting structures are not present on leaf lesions, the petal fall treatment is not needed for shot hole. (It may be necessary for control of other diseases such as scab or leaf blight, however.)

In the spring:

Whether or not a petal fall treatment is applied, monitor leaves for lesions with fruiting structures.

  • As soon as fruiting structures are evident, apply a treatment and continue treatments at the recommended label interval as long as weather conditions are conducive to disease development.
  • If fruiting structures are not present, a treatment is not required, but continue monitoring until weather conditions are no longer wet and conducive to shot hole development.

Contact fungicides serve as protectants, not eradicants, and provide control only if they are applied so foliage and fruit are well covered before a wet period. The minimum number of applications may vary each year, depending upon the rain pattern and use of sprinkler irrigation.

When zinc sulfate (20–40 lb/acre) is applied in late October to early November to hasten leaf fall, shot hole inoculum is prevented from increasing. Otherwise, high levels of inoculum may develop and overwinter on the trees, infecting leaves the following spring.

Common name Amount per acre REI‡ PHI‡
(Example trade name) (hours) (days)
Not all registered pesticides are listed. The following are ranked with the pesticides having the greatest IPM value listed first—the most effective and least likely to cause resistance are at the top of the table. When choosing a pesticide, consider information relating to the pesticide's properties and application timing, honey bees, and environmental impact. Always read the label of the product being used.
 
A. FLUOPYRAM/TRIFLOXYSTROBIN
  (Luna Sensation) 5.0–7.6 fl oz 12 14
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (7) and Quinone outside inhibitor (11)
  COMMENTS: Do not make more than two applications per season of QoIs or SDHIs to limit the potential for the development of resistance.
 
B. PYRACLOSTROBIN/FLUXAPYROXAD
  (Merivon) 5–6.5 fl oz 12 14
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): quinone outside inhibitor (11) and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (7)
  COMMENTS: Do not make more than three applications per season of QoIs (strobilurins) or SDHIs to limit the potential for the development of resistance.
 
C. PYRACLOSTROBIN/BOSCALID
  (Pristine) 10.5–14.5 oz 12 25
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): Quinone outside inhibitor (11) and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (7)
  COMMENTS: Do not make more than four applications per season of QoIs or SDHI and no more than two sequential applications before rotation to a different mode of action fungicide to limit the potential for the development of resistance.
 
D. IPRODIONE
  (Rovral, Nevado) 1 pt 24 See comments
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): Dicarboximide (2)
  COMMENTS: Do not apply later than 5 weeks after petal fall. Addition of a narrow range oil (Superior, Supreme) at 1 to 2% volume/volume increases the effectiveness of this material. Do not apply oil, however, within 3 weeks of a sulfur application or closely before or after an application of captan or chlorothalonil.
 
E. AZOXYSTROBIN/PROPICONAZOLE
  (Quilt Xcel) 17.5–26.0 fl oz 12 60
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): Quinone outside inhibitor (11) and demethylation (sterol) inhibitor (3)
  COMMENTS: Do not make more than two successive applications, and no more than four per season, to limit the development of resistance.
 
F. AZOXYSTROBIN/DIFENOCONAZOLE
  (Quadris Top) 14 oz 12 28
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): Quinone outside inhibitor (11) and demethylation (sterol) inhibitor (3)
  COMMENTS: Do not make more than two successive applications, and no more than four per season, to limit the development of resistance.
 
G. FLUOPYRAM/TEBUCONAZOLE
  (Luna Experience) 6–8 fl oz 12 35
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (7) and demethylation (sterol) inhibitor (3)
  COMMENTS: Do not make more than two successive applications, and no more than two per season, to limit the development of resistance.
 
H. AZOXYSTROBIN
  (Abound) 12.0–15.5 oz 4 28
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): Quinone outside inhibitor (11)
  COMMENTS: Do not apply more than two sequential sprays before alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action. Do not apply more than four applications of strobilurin fungicides per year or apply more than 92.3 fl oz/acre per season.
 
I. TRIFLOXYSTROBIN
  (Gem 500SC) 3.8 oz 12 14
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): Quinone outside inhibitor (11)
  COMMENTS: Do not apply within 14 days of harvest or after hullsplit. Do not make more than four applications per season and no more than two sequential sprays of QoI or SDHI fungicides to limit the potential for the development of resistance.
 
J. CHLOROTHALONIL
  (Bravo Weather Stik, Echo 720) Label rates See label See label
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): Multi-site contact (M5)
  COMMENTS: Do not apply one week before or after a treatment containing oil or an oil-based pesticide.
 
K. CAPTAN
  (various 50WP) Label rates See label See label
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): Multi-site contact (M4)
  COMMENTS: Do not apply in combination with, immediately before, or closely following oil sprays.
 
L. ZIRAM
  (various 76DF) 6–8 lb 48 0
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): Multi-site contact (M3)
  COMMENTS: When Ziram 76F is not applied as a tank mix with other systemic fungicides, use the maximum rate. Do not apply more than 32 lb/acre per season or apply later than 5 weeks after petal fall.
 
M. MANCOZEB
  (various) Label rates 24 See label
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NAME (NUMBER1): Multi-site contact (M3)
  COMMENTS: Do not apply more than 19.2 lb ai/acre per season or apply later than 5 weeks after petal fall.
Restricted entry interval (REI) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (PHI) is the number of days from treatment to harvest. In some cases the REI exceeds the PHI. The longer of these two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest may occur.
# Acceptable for use on organically grown produce.
1 Group numbers are assigned by the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) according to different modes of action. Fungicides with a different group number are suitable to alternate in a resistance management program. In California, make no more than one application of fungicides with mode-of-action group numbers 1, 4, 9, 11, or 17 before rotating to a fungicide with a different mode-of-action group number; for fungicides with other group numbers, make no more than two consecutive applications before rotating to a fungicide with a different mode-of-action group number.
Text Updated: 08/17
Treatment Table Updated: 08/17