Agriculture: Almond Pest Management Guidelines

Fungicide Efficacy—Biocontrols and Natural Products

Fungicide Biological or natural product (FRAC group)1, 5 Brown rot Jacket rot Anthrac-nose Shot hole Scab Rust Alternaria leaf spot2 Hull rot3 PM-like4 Silver leaf Bacterial spot
Botector Aureobasidium pullulans (BM 02) 3 2 NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL
Double Nickel 55 Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D747 (BM 02) 2 2 ND 2 NL NL NL NL NL NL 2
Serifel B. amyloliquefaciens MBI600 (BM 02) 2 2 NL 2 2 1 1 1 ND ND 2
Taegro 2** B. amyloliquefaciens FZB (BM 02) NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL
Sonata B. pumilis QST2808 (BM 02) 2 NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL
Serenade B. subtilis QST 713 (BM 02) 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 NL ND NL 3
Aviv B. subtilis IAB/BS03 (BM 02) ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
Dart* capric and caprylic acids (BM 01) 3 2 ND 2 1 1 2 2 ND 0 3
Cinnacure cinnamaldehyde (BM 01) 1 1 NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL
EF400 clove, rosemary, peppermint oils (BM 01) 1 2 1 NL ND NL NL NL NL NL NL
Vectorite Clonostachys rosea CR-7 (experimental) 4 2 ND 2 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
BacStop essential oils (BM 01) 1 1 1 NL ND NL NL NL NL NL 3
Messenger** harpin (P unspecified) NL 1 NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL
Kasumin kasugamycin (24)1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
ProBLAD Verde* Lupinus albus (BM 01) 3 2 NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL
Timorex (Act, Gold) natural oil (BM 01) 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 ND 2 NL NL
Trilogy, Rango neem oil (BM 01) 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 ND 2 NL NL
Oxidate, Perasan peroxyacetic acid (oxidizer) 1 2 1 1 NL NL 1 ND ND NL 2
Armicarb**, Milstop potassium bicarbonate (NC) NL NL NL NL 1 NL NL ND 3 NL NL
All Phase potassium sorbate/sodium lauryl sulfate (NC) NL NL NL NL 2 NL NL NL NL NL NL
Howler Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain AFS009(BM 02) 2 1 NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL 3
Regalia Reynoutria sachalinensis (P 05, BM 01) 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 ND 2 NL 3
Actinovate AG Streptomyces lydicus (BM 02) 1 1 NL NL NL NL NL NL 1 NL 2
EcoSwing Swinglea glutinosa (BM 01) 3 2 NL NL 1 NL 1 NL ND NL ND
PlantShield Trichoderma harzianum (BM 02) NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL 4 0
Vintec Trichoderma atroverde (BM 02)6 NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL 4 0
Procidic citric acid ND ND ND NL NL NL ND NL NL NL NL
Rating:   5 = excellent and consistent, 4 = good and reliable, 3 = moderate and variable, 2 = limited and/or erratic, 1 = minimal and often ineffective, 0 = ineffective, NL = not on label, and ND = no data.
*   Registration pending in California. 
** Not registered, label withdrawn or inactive in California.
1   Alphabetically arranged organic treatments. Note that kasugamycin is a fermentation (natural) product, but not an organic treatment.
2   Alternaria leaf spot caused by Alternaria alternata and A. arboresscens.
3   Hull rot ratings are for the disease caused by Rhizopus stolonifer.
4 PM refers to a powdery mildew disease.
5   FRAC group numbers are also provided as BM- or P-number codes. In general, sulfur compounds are fungicidal and may affect applications of fungal biocontrols (e.g., Botector); whereas copper may affect applications of bacterial biocontrols (e.g., Actinovate, Double Nickel 55, and Serenade). Rotations must consider these factors.
6   Labeled for Eutypa sp., Botryosphaeria sp., Cytospora sp., and other trunk diseases of almond.

Acknowledgment: Adaskaveg et al., 2022. Fungicides, Bactericides, Biocontrols, and Natural Products for Deciduous Tree Fruit and Nut, Citrus, Strawberry, and Vine Crops in California. (PDF)

Text Updated: 03/22