Bee precaution pesticide ratings

Guidance on how to reduce bee poisoning, based on reported pesticide effects on adults and brood of honey bees and other bee species. Ratings are for the pesticide active ingredient, the common name.*

Note: These are not the pollinator protection statements on the pesticide labels. Some of the listed pesticides are not registered, or approved, for use. Make sure the pesticide use is legal and appropriate before making any application. Always read the label before making any pesticide application.

 

 
Common Name
(Trade Name)
Type Mode of action Rating Other effects on bees Toxic to honey bee brood Toxic to other bee species
Please select a common name or trade name from the list above.

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I Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering.
II Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations.
III No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations.
Mode of action
FRAC Fungicide Resistance Action Committee mode-of-action codes for bactericides and fungicides.
HRAC Herbicide Resistance Action Committee mode-of-action codes for herbicides and plant growth regulators.
IRAC Insecticide Resistance Action Committee mode-of-action codes for acaricides, insecticides, nematicides, and molluscicides.
WSSA Weed Science Society of America mode-of-action codes are presented at the HRAC Herbicide Resistance Action Committee website above.
Mode-of-action code presentation style
· The separator (a bullet point) between the two mode-of-action codes for each herbicide active ingredient (common name), such as O·4, the HRAC·WSSA codes for 2,4-D.
/ The separator between common names (active ingredients), and between their mode-of-action codes, when two or more pesticides are combined in the same trade name product (e.g., a premix of the three herbicides 2,4-D/DICAMBA/MCPP).
; The separator between pesticide types, and between their mode-of-action codes, when an active ingredient (common name) is of multiple types as with sulfur, an Acaricide; Fungicide; Insecticide.
When the trade name product is in a premix of more than one active ingredient (common name) with the same mode of action, the codes are presented only once. For example, for the combination of the two dinitroaniline herbicides BENEFIN/TRIFLURALIN (Team 2G) their HRAC·WSSA codes are presented as "K1·3" instead of "K1·3/K1·3."
Mode-of-action codes are presented in the order of the common names to which they apply in line of given type. For example, the codes for PYRIDABEN/SULFUR (Desperado) are "21A/UN" as acaricide (IRAC codes), "–/M2" as fungicide (FRAC codes), and "21A/UN" as insecticide (IRAC codes).
Other effects
FRAC3 If mixed with DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC3
IRAC3A
If mixed with DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), or pyrethroid insecticides IRAC group 3A (e.g., cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate), may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC3
FRACM5
If mixed with DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), or chlorothalonil fungicide FRAC code M5, may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC3
IRAC3A
If mixed with DMI fungicides FRAC code 3 (e.g., propiconazole, tebuconazole, triflumizole), or pyrethroid insecticides IRAC group 3A (e.g., cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate), may increase toxicity to bees.
FRAC7
FRAC11
If mixed with SDHI and QoI fungicides FRAC codes 7 and 11 (boscalid and pyraclostrobin, Pristine), may increase toxicity to bees.
Insecticide If mixed with insecticides, increases hazard to bees.
IRAC1B If mixed with the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos, IRAC group 1B, may increase toxicity to bees.
IRAC3A If mixed with pyrethroid insecticides, IRAC group 3A (e.g., cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate), may increase toxicity to bees.
IRAC3A
IRAC4A
IRAC4D
IRAC15
If mixed with insecticides, including butenolide IRAC group 4D (flupyradifurone), chitin biosynthesis inhibitors IRAC group 15 (e.g., diflubenzuron, novaluron), neonicotinoids IRAC group 4A (e.g., acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid), or pyrethroids IRAC group 3A (e.g., cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate), may increase toxicity to bees.
Indirect Most herbicides are not toxic to bees, according to the available information. Herbicides primarily harm bees indirectly, by reducing the availability of flowering plants that produce nectar, pollen, and bee nesting material.
*Sources
  1. How to Reduce Bee Poisoning from Pesticides - 2013. Pacific Northwest Extension publication PNW591.
  2. US EPA criteria for the bee precautionary statement on pesticide labels, the active ingredients' LD50 (≤ 2 μg/bee, > 2 to < 11 μg/bee, or ≥ 11 μg/bee) and residual toxicity to honey bee adults.
  3. The authors' consideration of pesticide active ingredients' reported effects on the adults and brood of various bee species.
Authors
Steve H. Dreistadt, UC IPM Program, Davis
Elina L. Niño, Entomology and Nematology, UC Davis
Lucia G. Varela, UC IPM Program, UC Cooperative Extension, Sonoma County
Eric C. Mussen, Entomology and Nematology, UC Davis
Louisa Hooven, Oregon State University
Erik Johansen, Washington State Department of Agriculture
Acknowledgements
Richard S. Cowles, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
Brad Hanson, Plant Sciences, UC Davis
Reed M. Johnson, Ohio State University
Ramesh Sagili, Oregon State University
Cheryl A. Wilen, UC IPM Program, UC Cooperative Extension, San Diego County

Tunyalee Martin and Petr Kosina, coordinators; Chinh Lam, Mark Takata production; UC IPM. Partially funded by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U. S. Department of Agriculture - Crop Protection and Pest Management Competitive Grants Program.